Demography, Population Change and Management: Class 10 EPH Exercise

Demography, Population Change and Management : Class 10 EPH Exercise

  UNIT - 2  


1. Give very short answers to the following questions:

i. Define population.

Ans: The total number of people living in a certain place is known as population of that place.

ii. Write the formula of IMR.

Ans: The formula of calculating Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is;
IMR = (D/B) × 1000
Where, D = Total number of deaths under one year in a place 
              B = Total number of live births 

iii. Mention an environmental aspect affected by RPG.

Ans: Environmental aspect abfected by RPG is given below:

  • Deforestation

iv. What is the formula of rate of natural increase?

Ans: The formula of rate of natural increase is;
RNI = (CBR - CDR)/10

v. At 1 per cent of population growth rate, when will the population of a place be doubled?

Ans: At 1 percent of population growth rate, the population of a place will be doubled in 70 years.

vi. Write down formula for population doubling time.

Ans: The formula for population doubling time is given below;

vii. What is birth spacing?

Ans: Birth spacing is a time period between two consecutive births.

viii. Mention a natual birth control device.

Ans: A natural birth control device is given below; 

  • Rhythm or Calender method

ix. Which contraceptive device is kept in uterus?

Ans: IUCD (Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Devices) is kept in uterus.

x. What is possible success rate of Pills?

Ans: The possible success rate of Pills is 99%.

xi. Mention the permanent birth control method for males.

Ans: The permanent birth control method for males is given below;

  • Vasectomy

2. Give short answer of the following questions:

i. What is demography? Classify component, processes and measures of demography.

Ans: Demography is the scientific study of human population primarily with respect to size, structure, distribution and change.
Components of demography

  • Birth
  • Death
  • Migration
Process of demography
  • Fertility
  • Mortality
  • Migration
Measures of demography 
  • Fertility Rate
  • Mortality Rate 
  • Migration Rate

ii. What is mid-year population? The population of a place was found to be 20,000 on Baishakh 1st, 20,000 at the end of Chaitra of the year 2059. Calculate the mid-year population of that year.

Ans: The population obtained by dividing the sum of population of January 1st and December 31st by 2 is known as mid-year population.

Population of Baisakh 1st = 20,000
Population of chaitra 31st = 20,000 
Now, Mid-year population = (20,000 + 20,000)/2
                                                = 20,000
Therefore, The mid-year population is 20,000.

iii. Differentiate between crude birth rate (CBR) and general fertility rate (GFR). What was CBR of a village in Nepal in 2058 if it had 4320 as mid-year population and 210 as live birth of infants?

Ans: The differences between crude birth Rate and general fertility rate are as follows:

Crude Birth Rate General Fertility Rate
It is the total no. of live births per thousand mid-year population in a country in a specific year.  It is the total number of live births per thousand mid year female population of reproductive ages.
 Its formula is, CBR = (B/P)×1000  Its formula is, GFR = (B/Pᶠ₁₅₋₁₉) × 1000

Mid-year population (P) = 4320
Total no. of live births (B) = 210
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) = ?
We know, 
                  CBR = (B/P)×1000
                          = (210/4320)×1000
                          = 48.61
Therefore, CBR = 48.61 births per thousand. There was 48.61 live births per 1000 population in Nepal in 2058.

iv. How is ASFR calculated? Describe it with its formula.

Ans: ASFR is the actual number of births given by women of specific ages per thousand women of same ages. ASFR is calculated by dividing the total number of live births given by women of specific age and dividing by the number of women of the ages and multiplying by 1000.
               ASFR = (B/Pᶠ) × 1000

v. Write down any two importance of infant mortality rate. If the live births a death of infants under one year in a village of the Terai in 2068 was 1800 an 50 respectively. Calculate IMR for the place.

Ans: The two importance of IMR are as follows: 

  • It helps to measure no. of deaths in a group younger than one year of age.  
  • It helps to find out the health condition of people of a community.

No. of live birth (B) = 1800 
No. of deaths (D) = 30
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) = ?
we know, 
                 IMR = (D/B)×1000
                         = (50/1800)×1000
                         = 27.77
Therefore, IMR = 27.77 per 1000 live births. So, about 28 infants out of 1000 died in Nepal in 2068.

vi. Based on the following data, Calculate TFR.

Age-group ASFR (per 1000)
 15-19  95
 20-24  286
 25-29  272
 30-34  212
 35-39  151
 40-44  77
 45-49  28

          ASFR = 915
        TFR = (5×ASFR)/1000
                 = (5×915)/1000
                 = 24.575
Therefore, TFR = 4.575 per women.
The Total fertility rate is 4.575 children per women.

vii. Suppose in 2065 B.S, the total mid-year population of Lumbini was 160,000. If 2400 people from Lumbini went out for settlement and 1600 people from elsewhere came to settle in the city. Calculate the gross migration rate (GM). 

          Total mid-year population (P) = 160,000
           Out migrants (O) = 2409
            In migrants (I) = 1600
Gross migration (GM) = ?
We know,
                  GM = {(I + O)/P}×1000
                         = {(2600 +2400)/160,000}×1000
                         = 4000/160
                         = 25
Hence, The gross migration rate is 25 per thousand mid-year population. 

viii. After how many years the will population of Nepal be doubled at the annual growth rate of 1.35 per cent? Calculate by using the formula.

Population growth rate (PGR) = 1.35%
Population doubling time (PDT) = ?
We know,
                  PDT = 70/PGR
                          = 70/1.35
                          = 51.8
Therefore, The population of Nepal will be doubled after 51 years at the annual growth rate of 1.35%.

ix. The mid-year population of a certain village in 2068 was 20,150. If 17 people died and 134 live births took place, calculate rate of natural increase for the place. 

           Total mid-year population (P) = 20,150
           No. of deaths (D) = 17
           No. of births (B) = 134
           Rate of natural methods (RNI) = ?
We know,
                   CBR = (B/P)×1000
                           = (134/20,150)×1000
                           = 6.65
                   CDR = (D/P)×1000
                           = (17/20,150)×1000
                           = 0.84
                RNI =  (CBR - CDR)/10
                        = (6.65 - 0.84)/10
                        = 0.581%
Therefore, The rate of natural increase for the village was 0.581% 

x. Briefly describe the effects of rapid population growth on the quality of education.

Ans: When population of certain place grows beyond control then it is called rapid population growth. When population of certain place grows faster then it is almost impossible to provide all kinds of facilities to all people. Current number of schools will not be enough for providing education to the growing number of people. As a result a large number of students will get admitted in a same school and when there are large number of students then it it impossible to control them and provide them quality education. So, we can say that rapid population growth has negative impact on quality of education. 

xi. Discuss the adverse effects of rapid population growth on environment. 

Ans: When the population of a certain place grows rapidly. It is very difficult to provide all kinds of facilities to people. The place will not be enough for their settlement due to which they will cut down trees to construct houses. When population is high, the number of industries will also increases which causes pollution. The large amount of wastes produced by large number of population pollutes the land. It cause imbalance in the environment. In this way rapid population growth affects the environment.

xii. What is migration? List out the adverse effects of migration in the place of origin and the place of destination.

Ans: Migration is the geographical movement of people from one area to another during an interval and involvement of change of usual place of residence.
Effect of migration in the place of origin

  • There will be shortage of skilled Manpower.
  • That place will be backward in terms of development.
Effect of Migration in the place of destination
  • People can become jobless due to large manpower.
  • Place will be crowded.

xiii. What do you mean by population management?

Ans: Population management is an effort to maintain the population according to the availability of resources.

xiv. Make a list of direct and indirect measures to control population growth. 

Ans: The list of direct and indirect measurement to Control population growth are as follows:
Direct Measures

  • Birth Spacing
  • Delayed Marriage
  • Delayed first Conception 
  • Incentives
Indirect Measures
  • Gender equality
  • Population Education
  • Women empowerment
  • Employment and income generation.

xv. How can population be controlled with gender equality and education? 

Ans: Maintaining gender equality and providing education are also the measures of controlling rapid population growth. When male and females are treated equally without discriminating them then the population will be controlled as parents won't give birth to large no. of children in search of boys. 

In the Same way, if people are educated they will gain knowledge about the effect of rapid population growth and they will give importance to small family size. They will also suggest other family to maintain small family size. In this way, population can be controlled with gender equality and education.

xvi. Write down the major characteristics of natural methods of birth control.

Ans: The major characteristics of natural method of birth control are as follows:

  • No need to consult medical personnel.
  • No need of buying any other means.
  • Not So realiable.
  • Everyone can follow it.

xvii. Compare the pills and injectable in terms of method of use, two advantages and a disadvantages of each.

Ans: Pills is one of the contraceptive devices for female which is taken orally. It needs to be taken regularly. In the same way, injectable is also a contraceptive device which works for 3 months. It is injected into arm or thighs in every 3 months.

Advantages of Pills

  • It does not make any troble in sexual intercourse.
  • It is very effective with regular use.
Disadvantages of pills
  • People should consult doctor before using it.
  • It is not suitable for breast feeding women.

Advantages of Injectable

  • It is very effective (99.7)%.
  • Once injected no tension for 3 months. 
Disadvantages of Injectable 
  • Some may feel head ache, weight gain etc.
  • Irregular menstruation and heavy bleeding may occur in the beginning.

xviii. Among the various birth control methods, which one do you think is the best? Justify your answer.

Ans: Among different natural and artificial birth control methods, using temprorary devices such as condom and pills is best in my opinion. As, those devices can be used by all and also helps to protect from sexually transmitted diseases. Those devices are easily available in every clinic at cheap price. They are being widely used nowadays as people are being educated day by day.

3. Long answer questions (Comprehension level).

i. Clarify the concept of demographic components, processes and measures.

Ans: Demography is the scientific study of human population primarily with respect to size, structure, distribution and change. Birth, death and migration are the major components that affect the situation of population. Birth are affected by fertility, death by mortality and migration by process of migration. For the demographic analysis, information on fertility rate, mortality rate and migration rate is required. They help to analyze the changes in population size, composition, distribution and also their future trends. 

ii. Introduce IMR and MMR and their importance in demographic study.

Ans: Infant Mortality rate (IMR) is the total number of infant deaths under the age of one year per 1000 live births in a place in a given year. In same way, maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is the total number of death of a women while pregnant or within 42 days of terminal preganency. They both are the important demographic neasures. It helps to find out the health condition of people of a certain area. It also helps to predict the future possibility of number of death due to lack of health service. IMR and MMR also helps to find out the human development Index.

iii. Briefly explain the effects of RPG on socio-economic aspects.

Ans: Rapid Population Growth (RPG) is defined as the growth of population size beyond the availability of means and resources. When the population of a certain place is growing rapidly then it affects the socio-economic as well as environmental aspects. High population needs high large space for living as well as enough food for survival. 

A country can only bear the size of population which can be fulfilled by the available resources. When there is high popult population, many people become jobless. They can't get proper health facilities. Our culture as well as cultural heritages gets damaged. There will be scarcity of food and drinking water. In this way, RPG affects Socio-economic aspects.

iv. Describe the effects of RPG on environmental aspects.

Ans: Rapid population growth (RPG) directly affects the environment and it's components. As we know large number of population needs large area for settlement. When the population of a certain place is large but has no space for settlement then people will destroy forest to construct their houses. 

Large population creates more pollution and wastes which are harmful for the environment. Dense human settlement interrupts natural recycling process of air. People will extract more minerals from the earth due to which they may get finished Rapid population growth also causes flood, landslide, soil erosion ete. In this way, RPG affects the environmental aspects.

v. What is population management? Briefly mention about the direct and indirect measures of population management.

Ans: Population management is an effort to maintain the population according to the availability of resources. Scarcity and other problems are created if population is increased beyond the carrying capacity of available resources. Population management helps to balance the population according to the availability of means and resources. There are different measures for controlling population. They are classified into direct and indirect measures. 

The direct measure includes birth spacing, delayed marriage, delayed first conception etc. and indirect measure includes gender equality, women empowerment, population education etc. Both the measures directly or indirectly helps to control rapid population growth. Direct measures are the effective way to control whereas indirect measures are not so effective.

vi. How do the gender equality and education help in population management?

Ans: Rapid population growth is one of the main problem of our country. Due to rapid population growth, people are facing many problems. We all should put some effort to control the rapid population growth. There are many ways of controlling and managing population. Among them gender equality and education are also one. Gender equality directly or indirectly helps to control the population growth. When male and female are treated equally without any discrimation then couples may not give birth to large number of children in search of boys. Parents will be happy even if they give birth to a girl. 

In the same way, education also plays important role for the population management. When people get educated, they become aware about the negative effects of high population. They give priority to small family size. They become well known about different contraceptive devices which helps to control birth. If all couples started adopting small family size then automatically the population will be balanced. In this way, gender equality and education helps in population management.

4. Differentiate the following:

i. Temporary and permanent methods of birth control 

Ans: The differences between temporary and permanent methods of birth control are as follows: 

class 10 EPH Notes
Temporary Methods Permanent Methods 
It is a type of method which helps to delay first pregnancy and birth spacing. It is a type of method which permanently disable the couple to bear a child. 
There is some risks of being preganent while using temporary metheds. There is no any risk of pregnancy after adopting permanent methods.
Eg: pills, condom, foam tab etc.  Eg: minilap, vasectomy etc.

ii. Gender equity and gender equality

Ans: The differences between equity and gender equality are as follows:

Class 10 EPH Notes
Gender Equity Gender Equality 
It is the process of being fair to women and men. It is the process of treating man and women equally without discrimination. 
It involves treating each individual according to his/her needs. It involves treating every individual in the same manner irrespective of their difference.
It consider individual needs of people. It does not consider needs and requirement of people.

iii. Demographic components and demographic processes

Ans: The differences between demographic components and demographic processes are as follows:

Class 10 EPH Notes
Demographic Component Demographic Process
It includes birth, death and migration. It includes fertility, mortality and migration. 

iv. Fertility and fecundity 

Ans: The didifferences fertility and fecundity are as follows:

Class 10 EPH Notes
Fertility Fecundity
It is the observed capacity to produce children. It is the biological capacity to produce children.
Fertility is affected by fecundity. Fecundity is not affected by fertility.
It play direct role in population growth. It has indirect role in population growth.

v. Active and dependent population

Ans: The differences between active and dependent population are as follows:

Class 10 EPH Notes
Active Population Dependent Population
They are economically independent. They are economically dependent
Age group 15-59 fall under this category. Age group below 15 and above 60 fall under this category.

5. Give reasons:

i. Migration is the important cause of population change.

Ans: Migration is important cause of population change because when people migrate from one place to another then the population increases in the place of destination and population decreases in the place of origin. 

ii. It is difficult to get employment for all due to rapid population growth. 

Ans: It is difficult to get employment for all due to rapid population growth because when population increases rapidly then the manpower will be enough than needed. Due to which all people won't get employment opportunity.

iii. Population growth leads to the environmental degradation.

Ans: Population growth leads to the environmental degradation because more population creates more wastes which pollutes environment and it's components. 

6. Write short notes on:

i. Birth-spacing

Birth spacing is a time span between two consecutive births. In other words, it is an interval of time after a birth of a baby to the next. It takes about two years to achieve normal physical condition for a woman after delivery. Physical condition of children under five can be critical. Therefore, proper care and attention is necessary. In this way, birth spacing of 4 to 5 years is beneficial to a mother and a child as well. In short, giving birth to first and second child with interval of 4-5 years is birth spacing. It also helps to control population growth by delaying the span from first to the next birth.

ii. RPG

The population of a country changes continuously. Birth, death and migration are the demographic elements behind the population change. Population growth rate shows either the population of the country is increasing or decreasing. Population growth rate is sum of RNI and net migration, it is expressed in percent.

iii. Total fertility rate

Total fertility rate (TFR) is the average number of children that would be born to a woman throughout her reproductive age. It is common and refined measure of fertility than the earlier discussed ones. It is calculated by taking the sum of ASFR, multiplying by 5 and dividing by 1000. TFR is measured per woman.

iv. Infant mortality rate

Infant mortality rate (IMR) is considered as important indicator of mortality among various ASDRs. The infant mortality (death under one year of age) is higher than other age groups. Therefore, it is one of the best indicators of socio-economic as well as health condition of a country. IMR is very high in developing countries like Nepal whereas it is very low for more developed countries. It was 46 per thousand for Nepal according to NDHS 2011.

v. Population doubling time

The tentative time for the doubling of existing population of a country is or a place is called population doubling time (PDT). We can also estimate the future population size from doubling time. If current population growth rate continues, we can estimate approximate PDT and assume the size of population to the time. 

It is just like compound interest in bank. If the annual population growth rate is 1 per cent for a place, the population will be doubled in 70 years. It takes 35 years with the rate of 2 per cent and 23 years with the rate of 3 per cent. In order to find the doubling time, we have to divide 70 (or exactly 69.3) years by the annual population growth rate.


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