UNIT - 4
POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT SITUATION OF NEPAL
1. Give very short answers to the following questions.
i. What is the share of population in hill region in 2001 and 2011?
Ans: The share of population in hill region in 2001 was to 44.3% and in 2021 was 43%.
ii. Mention any two causes of environmental degradation of the Terai region.
Ans: The two causes of environmental degradation of the Terai region are as follows:
- Unplanned industrialization
iii. Write any two festivals celebrated in the Terai region.
Ans: The two festivals celebrated in Nepal are as follows:
iv. Mention the special dress of hill region for women.
Ans: The special dress of hill region for women are sari and cholo.
v. Write down any two vegetation of mountain region.
Ans: The tow vegetation of mountain region are as follows:
vi. Mention a measure for environmental conservation.
Ans: We can use Compost manure instead of chemical fertilizer for environmental conservation.
2. Give short answers to the following questions:
i. Briefly explain the population distribution by ecological region.
Ans: Population is not equally distributed to all areas in Nepal due to diversity of land structure, climate soil etc. Population distribution by ecological region means the distribution of population on the basis of ecological regions i.e mountain, hill and the Terai.
Different region has different climate and physical features. In the same way, people living in different regions have their own culture, traditions and customs. Population by ecological region is not only concerned with the lifestyle of people living there but also with the physical aspect an biological aspect and socio-economic aspects.
Population distribution by ecological region helps to make proper use of natural resources available there. It also helps to speed up the overall development of the country.
ii. What do you mean by ecosystem?
Ans: Ecosystem is the harmonious interrelationship between biotic and abiotic aspects of the environment. Various living beings including human beings are grown
and adapted according to the ecosystem of a place. Different regions have their own type of ecosystem. for example: ecosystem of himalayan region is different from ecosystem of terai region.People living in different regions have their own custom traditions and belief.
iii. Compare the physical aspect of hill and the Terai region.
Ans: Hill region is situated in between the mountains in the north and the Terai in the south. The climate of this region is neither very cold nor very hot. There are hills of different heights. There is diversity in the ecosystem as it is divided into three sub-regions. Mahabharat range, mid Hill and chusia or Siwalik range.
In the same way, Terai region is situated in the southern part of Nepal at an altitude of 6o to 610 metres from the sea-level. The climate of Terai region is warm and humid. The terai region is also divided into three sub regions; Inner Terai, Bhabar region and the plain of the Terai
iv. Describe the socio-economic aspect of mountain region.
Ans: Among three ecological regions of Nepal. Mountain region is one. There is lack of the cultivable and fertile land in this region. People living here rare cattles as cattle farming is the main occupation of people of mountain region. Sherpa, thakali, Mugal, Manangi, bhote etc. people live
here. They celebrate different festival such as dashain, Tihar , Lhosar etc.
Life of people living in mountain region is difficult due to limited facilities of transport, Communications, electricity etc. Housing, food, dress, occupation and life style is different from that of other region. People living in this region wear thick woollen clothes called 'Bakkhu' and 'Docha'. The main means of survival animal husbandry and small trade of wool and medical herbs.
v. Explain in brief, the impact of human activities on mountain ecosystem with applicable solution to mitigate them.
Ans: Human beings prefer to live in a place full of facilities and accommodation. We know that, Nepal is divided in three ecological regions. Among three regions mountain region is the most least populated region. Mountain regiona shares 6.7 percent of population as per the Census 2016 . The population size and density Is very low in this region.
Due to this, mountain region is lacking behind in terms of development.
People are continuously migrating from mountain region to hill or terai region in search of facilities and opportunities. If the migration process continued then the time will come when there won't be any settlement in mountain regions. we should try our best to control the migration of people from mountain to Terai. For controlling the problems of mountain region we can do the following tasks :
- Construct road for transportation
- Build school and Hospitals
- Stop deforestation
- Control Overgrazing
vi. Describe in brief, the efforts on environmental conservation in Nepal.
Ans: People use various resources from environment to conduct development activities and production of goods and Services. It is necessary to condust
development activities such as industritization,hydroelectricity generating, irrigation etc. to improve the standard of living, however we should not degrade the environment while conducting developmental activities and utilizing environmental resources.
It is our common duty to conserve the environment. In order to conserve the environment, each individual must have concern on environment and surrounding ecosystem from local level. Besides, Government of Nepal is also conducting various programs related to environmental conservation through its various ministries such as Municipality, VDC etc.
Some efforts on environmental conservation in Nepal are given below:
- Conservation of forest
- Soil Conservation
- Solid Waste Management
- Control of Pollution
- Conservation of religious and cultural heritages
vii. Describe the mountain ecosystem in brief.
Ans: Mountain region is situated in the northern part of Nepal. It has different land structure and climate than other regions. Different types of plants and animals such as pine, maples, snow leopard, wild boar etc. are found in this region. There is lack of cultivable and fertile land in mountain region. The climate is cold and hard. People living in this region rare animals such as Yak and sheep. People living in this region wear thick woollen clothes called Bakkhu and Docha. Sherpa, thakali, Bhate etc. live here and they follow religions like and hinduism and Buddhism.
viii. How have the developmental works and industrialization affected the ecosystem of the Terai region?
Ans: Due to human activities, development,
construction and modernization, the ecosystem of the Terai region has adversely been affected. People of terai region dependent on agriculture and forest product. There is high possibility of destruction of jungle near the fertile land. Farmers are using huge amount of chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides to increase agricultural yield. People of terai region are using modern technology in huge amount than other regions. Due to this environment is badly affected. Rapid industrialization is also one major problem of terai region that affects environment.
ix. Compare the socio-economic aspects of the people of the Terai and mountain region in any 3 points.
Ans: We know that ecosystem of mountain region and terai region are different due to which the Socio-economic aspect of the terai region isdifferent t from mountain region. The socio-economic aspect of terai and mountain region are compared in the following points.
i. There is the lack of the cultivable and fertile land in mountain region whereas there is sufficient cultivable and fertile land in terai region.
ii. Mantain region shares 6.7 percent of the total population but terai region shares 50.3 percent of the total population according to the Census 2011.
iii. People living in mountain region celebrate Buddha purnima, Loshar etc. But people of terai region celebrate chhath,ID,Chhath etc.
x. Explain the socio-economic aspect of the ecological region you live.
Ans: I live in terai region. The Teral region has alluvial soil. So it is very fertile. As mentioned earlier, this region is called the granary of Nepal. Large and small industries have been established here. trade and services are the occupations of the people.
People of various castes such as Brahmin, Rajput, Dhimal, Majhi, Yadav, Kayastha, Teli, Rajbansi, Tharu, Satar live in this region. People from the mountains and hills migrate to the Terai in order to get employment and education, Facilities of trade and transport also attract them. Houses are made up of mud, wood, dry grass and bamboo. Concrete building are rapidly increasing.
3. Long-answer questions (Application level)
i. Suggest any seven measures that can be applied in environmental conservation.
Ans: Any seven measures that can be applied in environmental conservation are briefly explained below;
a. Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle: This is the three R’s of environmental conservation and serves as an effective way to reduce the amount of waste and resources being used.
b. Sustainable Agriculture: Growing crops and raising livestock in sustainable ways can help protect the environment.
c. Eco-friendly Transportation: Encouraging the use of public transportation and electric vehicles can help reduce emissions.
d. Renewable Energy: Investing in renewable energy sources such as solar and wind can reduce our reliance on non-renewable resources.
e. Protect Endangered Species: It is important to protect endangered species and their habitats in order to maintain a healthy environment.
f. Reduce Water Usage: Conserving water is an essential step in preserving natural resources.
g. Educate and Raise Awareness: Educating people on the importance of environmental conservation is essential in order to promote sustainable practices.
ii. Explain the preventive measures of environmental problems in Mountain and Hill regions.
Ans: Some of the preventive measures of environmental problems in Mountain and Hill regions are as follows:
1. Plantation: Planting trees and shrubs can help restore and protect mountain and hill ecosystems. Trees provide essential shade and shelter and help to regulate the temperature and soil moisture. Planting various species of trees in strategic locations can protect the environment from soil erosion, landslides, and avalanches.
2. Conservation of natural resources: It is important to conserve the natural resources in mountain and hill regions by using them judiciously. This includes reducing the use of timber, stone, and other resources, as well as practicing sustainable forestry and agricultural practices.
3. Waste management: Proper waste management is essential to protect the environment in mountain and hill regions. This includes reducing waste, recycling, and properly disposing of hazardous materials.
4. Sustainable tourism: Tourism can help to generate jobs and income in mountain and hill regions, but it can also have a negative impact on the environment. Sustainable tourism practices should be implemented to ensure that the environment is not adversely affected.
5. Energy conservation: Energy consumption in mountain and hill regions should be reduced in order to help protect the environment. This can be done by implementing energy efficient technologies and using renewable energy sources.
4. Write short notes on:
i. Socio-economic aspect of mountain region.
Ans: There is the lack of the cultivable and fertile land in the mountain region. The climate is cold and hard. There are plenty of pasture lands and Kharks which are suitable for cattle farming. Due to the climate and land structure, cultivation is difficult here. The frequent snowfall does not let the crops and vegetation develop well and bear fruits. Yaks and sheep are kept.
There are small valleys and plains in the districts like Humla, Jumla, Mugu, Dolpa and Manang. Settlements are found on the riverbank and slopes. People live at high altitudes in the mountain region. Sherpa, Thakall, Mugal, Manangi, Bhote, etc, live here. Hinduism and Buddhism are main religion. People celebrate Pitripuja, Lhosar, Dashain, Tihar and other local as well as national festivals. Muktinath, Gosainkunda, Chandannath, Shey-Gumba are some examples of famous religious heritage.
ii. Measures for conservation of ecosystem of the Terai region.
Ans: Due to human activities, development, construction and modernization, the ecosystem of the Terai region has adversely been affected. Some of conservation measures are given bellow.
1. Conservation of Wetlands: Protecting and restoring wetlands is important for the conservation of the Terai region ecosystem. This can be done by implementing proper land use and water management policies, and by creating regulations to protect wetland habitats.
2. Reforestation: Tree planting is a great way to restore the original vegetation of the Terai region. Reforestation activities should be encouraged by providing incentives such as subsidies or tax breaks for local farmers.
3. Sustainable Agriculture: Sustainable agricultural practices should be encouraged in the Terai region. This includes using organic fertilizers, crop rotation and avoiding the use of harmful pesticides and herbicides.
4. Pollution Control: Pollution control measures should be implemented to reduce the impact of human activities on the environment. This can include proper waste management, restrictions on the use of chemicals, and the implementation of clean energy technologies.
5. Biodiversity Conservation: Biodiversity conservation is essential for the health of the Terai region ecosystem. This can be done by preserving natural habitats, creating wildlife sanctuaries, and promoting the reintroduction of endangered species.
iii. Physical aspects of the Terai region.
Ans: The southern plain of Nepal is known as the Terai. It slopes from north to south. Twenty districts lie in this region. Some districts in the Terai region are Jhapa, Dhanusha, Nawalparasi, Dang, Kailali, etc. The Terai region has three sub-regions -Inner Terai, Bhabar region and the plain of the Terai. The ecosystem of each sub- region differs from one another.
5. Give reasons:
i. Economic aspect varies according to the ecological regions.
Ans: The ecological region is a broad area that encompasses many different natural systems, such as vegetation, soils, water, and wildlife. These systems, in turn, interact with and influence the economic activities of the area, such as land use, resource extraction, and development. Therefore, the economic aspects of a region can vary greatly depending on the type of ecosystem and its associated resources, as well as the human activity in the region.
ii. Conservation of cultural and religious heritage also helps to conserve the environment.
Ans: Conservation of cultural and religious heritage helps to conserve the environment because it encourages respect and appreciation for the natural world. Many religions and cultures have long-standing traditions that emphasize the importance of caring for the environment and respecting its resources. This type of stewardship encourages people to protect and preserve the environment, which in turn helps to protect and preserve the cultural and religious heritage.
iii. Human pressure is increasing on the ecosystem of the Terai region.
Ans: Human pressure is increasing on the ecosystem of the Terai region due to a number of factors. One of the most significant is the increase in population in the region. This has led to an increase in the demand for resources such as food, fuel, and other materials. As the population increases, more land is needed to support them, leading to deforestation and destruction of habitats. Additionally, human activities such as mining, construction, and industrial activities are also depleting natural habitats and resources in the region. All these activities are putting a strain on the local ecosystems, leading to an increased human pressure on the environment.
iv. Degradation of ecosystem affects the life of living beings.
Ans: Deforestation, pollution, overfishing, and other human activities are resulting in the degradation of ecosystems. This degradation affects the lives of living beings in many ways.
First, degraded ecosystems often provide fewer resources, such as food and clean water, due to a decrease in the number of species that live in the area. This can lead to food insecurity and increased competition for resources between species.
Second, when ecosystems are degraded, many species that depend on healthy ecosystems for their survival may be forced to adapt to new, less hospitable environments or may face extinction. This can reduce genetic diversity and reduce the ability of species to adapt to future changes in their environment.
Third, degraded ecosystems can also lead to an increase in disease-causing organisms, as well as an increase in the severity of existing diseases. This can have a significant negative impact on human and animal health.
Finally, the degradation of ecosystems can also lead to a decrease in air and water quality, which can have a direct impact on human health. This can lead to respiratory problems and other health issues.
Overall, the degradation of ecosystems has a significant impact on the lives of living beings. It can lead to food insecurity, a decrease in the access to sufficient food.
v. Ecosystem varies according to ecological belts.
Ans: Ecosystems vary according to ecological belts because different environmental conditions exist at different latitudes and altitudes. For example, tropical rainforests are found in the warm, wet equatorial belt, while tundra is found in the cold, dry polar regions. The amount of sun, temperature, and precipitation all affect the kind of plants and animals that live in a particular area. Different types of ecosystems are adapted to the specific environmental conditions that exist in each ecological belts.