UNIT - 3
POPULATION, ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
1. Very short answer questions.
i. Mention two activities related to population, environment and development.
Ans: The two activities related to population, environment and development are as follows:
ii. What is brain drain?
Ans: Brain drain is the process of moving of skilled Manpower from one country to another.
iii. From which perodic plan, regional balance in development was started?
Ans: From the fourth perodie plan, regional balance in development was started.
iv. What was the name of the report Brundtland Commission published ?
Ans: The name of the report Brundtland commission published was,"Our Common future".
v. Write any two importance of sustainable development ?
Ans: The two importance of sustainable development are as follows :
- Appropriate use of natural resources
- Long term vision
2. Short answer questions.
i. " Population, environment and development are interrelated." Justify the statement in brief.
Ans: Population is the active component of the environment. They use environment for development activities. People use the resources found in the environment, conserve them and use wisely for various developmental activities. When environment is clean and fresh then the health of people will also be good. Healthy person can easily carry out developmental activities. Healthy environment support healthy and happy life and healthy life support sustainable development. In this way population, environment and development are interrelated with each other.
ii. What do you mean by sustainable development? Mention any four principles of sustainable development.
Ans: Sustainable development is the eco-friendly development which meet the need of present generation without compro mising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs.
The four principles of sustainable development are as follows:
- Conservation of Ecosystem
- Protection of biodiversit
- Increase in public participation
- Conservation of cultural heritage.
iii. What do you mean by carrying capacity?
Ans: Carrying capacity is the capacity of the earth to carry the burden of plants, animals
and human being existing in a particular area.
iv. Why is sustainable development important in terms of environment?
Ans: Sustainable development is important in terms of environment because sustainable development is an friendly development which uses and save the natural resources for future use side by side. Sustainable development mainly focuses on the conservation of bio-diversity, ecosystem, human resources etc. It is necessary for the maintenance of the environment. It teaches people to make low of means and resources which help to preserve the environment and its component.
v. How does construction work affect the environment ? Describe briefly.
Ans: As we already know, different types of technologies are used in construction work. Those equipment or machines used in the construction work produce gases which directly affect the environment. similarly people also cut down forest for carrying construction work of airport or threature. When people cut down trees it also affect the environment. People make plots in agricultural land which pollutes environment. Overall we can say that every construction work directly or indirectly affect the environment.
vi. What is regional balance in development?
Ans: Regional balance in development is an important condition for the harmonious and smooth development of a Country. It implies uniform distribution pattern of the planned investment among different regions of a country.
3. Long answer questions (comprehension level)
i. Brifly describe the causes, consequences and remedies of brain drain in Nepal
Ans: The process of moving of skilled manpower from one Country to another is known as brain drain. It is one of the major problem of Nepal. Because of brain drain Nepal is lacking behind in terms of development. The major causes of brain drain are lack of facilities, lack of job opportunities etc. Because of these problems people are compelled to go to another country for getting higher facilities and opportunities. When skilled manpower migrate to another country than there will be lack of skilled Manpower in the place of origin due to which the development of the country will be slow. In order to stop brain drain, facilities should be increased, job opportunities should be provided. When people get enough opportunities, they don't need to migrate to another country.
ii. What do you mean by regional balance in development? Explain why regional balance is necessary for equitable distribution of development.
Ans: Regional balance in development means developing all regions (both ecological and administrative) equally. When there is regional balance in development people of all region gets equal opportunities and they can easily uplift their living standard. Regional balance helps to improve employment status,per capita income, education level etc. If regional balance in development is practised then the country will be developed faster than before.
Natural resources will be utilized propertionately in all region. Regional balance of development promotes balance distribution of facilities. It helps to avoid unplanned urbanization, uncontrolled migration and imbalanced development. Regional balance helps to distribute all kind of facilities to every region equally. So, regional balance in development is very much necessary.
iii. Introduce sustainable development in your own words. What can be done locally for sustainable development ?
Ans: Sustainable development is the long lasting development which is eco-friendly and in which exploitation of resources is done to meet the need of present generation without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. Sustainable development is necessary for the maintenance of the environment.
We all human being should put our effort together for the support of sustainable development. We can do different echo-friendly activities locally for the support of sustainable development. We can support it by using natural resources wisely, controlling population, protecting bio-diversity, conserving cultural heritages etc. When there is sustainable development, it brings positive change in people's knowledge, skill and attitude. Sustainable development plays a vital role in environmental balance. So, we should also try to support sustainable development as much as can for the sake of future generation.
4. Justify with reasons:
i. Regional balance is necessary for equitable distribution of development.
Ans: Regional balance in development is an important condition required for the smooth and harmonious development of a country. It does not imply equal development in all the regions of the country. Rather, it indicates the utilization of development potential of all areas or regions as per its capacity. It leads to overall economic growth.
Regional balance in development helps to imply a uniform distribution pattern of the planned investment among different regions of a country. It demands the distribution of investment in such a way so that the regional rates of growth in different parts of the country are equally achieved. It eliminates the disparity between regions prevailing in the country. So regional balance in development is necessary for equitable distribution of development.
ii. Development work helps to develop human efficiency.
Ans: Development works are directly associated with the environment. In order carry out developmental activities, environmental resource like land, forest, water, minerals, etc. should be used. Different countries conduct different kinds of development activities according to resources available. Now those resources cannot be utilized in absence of human resources. Human resources use their knowledge and skill to use those resources.
Developmental works helps people to get opportunities to set their knowledge and skills. Besides, their experience and work efficiency will be increased when they participate in development activities. Participation and involvement in development activities help to preserve the infrastructures as participation builds affection towards their work. They will be more directed towards care, repair, maintenance of the infrastructures which further increase their ability and confidence towards work.
Therefore, development activities should be conducted in the country so that people get a chance to develop their efficiency.