Electricity and Magnetism: Class 10 Science Notes

Electricity and Magnetism : Class 10 Science Notes

Electricity and Magnetism Class 10 Science Complete Notes. This note include all the excercise given in electricity and magnetism chapter of science book such as question answer, numericals, give reason, diagrammatic questions and define the following. This note is published for helping students to solve their problems.

If you find any mistakes or feel like giving any suggestions then feel free to comment down.

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  Chapter - 6  
Electricity & Magnetism

2. Answer the following questions:

a.Which wire (live, neutral or earth) connects a switch? Why? 

Ans: Live wire connects a switch so that the socket or appliance is not live when switched off.

b. How can the strength of an electromagnet be increased?

Ans: The strength of an electromagnet can be increased by increasing the current in the coil.

c. What is kWh? How is it related to joule?

Ans: A kilowatt hour (kWh) is the energy produced or consumed when a device with a power of 1 kW produces or consumes energy for one hour.

d. What precautions should we take to avoid electrical hazards in houses?

Ans: The precautions that we should take to avoid electrical hazards in houses are as follows:
  • Inspect wiring of equipment before each use
  • Use safe work practices every time electrical equipment is used
  • Know the location and how to operate shut-off switches and/or circuit breaker panels
  • Multi-plug adapters must have circuit breakers or fuses
  • Minimize the potential for water or chemical spills on or near electrical equipment

e. Write Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction.

Ans: Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction states, “Whenever a conductor is placed in a varying magnetic field, an electromotive force is induced. Likewise, if the conductor circuit is closed, a current is induced, which is called induced current.”

f. How is current electricity generated from a bicycle dynamo? What is motor Effect.

Ans: Dynamo is small electricity generator which works on faradays induction law that tells rotating conductor placed between magnets generates voltage in it. To rotate the copper conductor in dynamo, cycle wheel rotations are coupled mechanically to the dynami rotar which rotates as cycles runs and voltage gets generated in the copper windings of dynamo.

When the current flows through a wire is placed in the magnetic field, a movement is developed in the wire. This phenomenon is called motor effect.

g. State Fleming's right hand rule. For what purpose do we use this rule?

Ans: Fleming’s Right Hand Rule states that if we arrange our thumb, forefinger and middle finger of the right-hand perpendicular to each other, then the thumb points towards the direction of the magnetic force, the forefinger points towards the direction of the magnetic field and the middle finger points towards the direction of the current.

Fleming's right hand rule is used to determined the direction of induced current in the conductor when a conductor moves in a region of magnetic field.

h. How do we increase the current produced in a generator?

Ans: We can increase the current produced in a generator by the following ways:
  • By increasing the speed of rotation of dynamo 
  • By increasing the number of turns of wire in a coil 
  • By increasing the strength of magnet by using a soft iron core
  • By decreasing the distance between magnets and coil

i. Write the working principle of a transformer.

Ans: A transformer is based on the principle of Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction and it state that when a conductor is linked with a coil, an emf is induced in it.

j. Mention the major use of a transformer.

Ans: The major uses of transformer are as follows:

  • to reduce the voltage of conventional power circuits to operate low-voltage devices
  • Transformer is used for Impedance Matching
  • The transformer is also used for isolate two circuits electrically
  • Transformer is used in the construction of electrical measuring device such as voltmeter, ammeter, relay etc.

k. An electric motor converts energy from one form to another. Name these two forms in sequences.

Ans: An electric motor converts energy from one form to another which is mechanical energy into electrical energy.

l. A dynamo converts energy from one form to another. Name these two forms in sequences.

Ans: A dynamo converts energy from one form to another i.e Mechanical energy into Electrical energy.

m. Describe a simple experiment which illustrates the truth of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.

Ans: Experiment:
Two different coils of copper wire having large number of turns (say 50 and 100 turns respectively) are taken. They are now inserted over a non-conducting cylindrical roll, as shown in figure below.

The coil-1, having larger number of turns, is connected in series with a battery and a plug key. Also, the other coil-2 is connected with a galvanometer as shown.

The key is initiated and the galvanometer is observed. We will observe that the needle of th galvanometer instantly jumps to one side and then quickly returns to zero, indicating a momentary current in coil-2.

The coil-1 is now disconnected from the battery. Now we will observe that the needle momentarily moves, but to the opposite side. It means that now the current flows in the opposite direction in coil-2.

Observation 
From these observations, we conclude that a potential difference is induced in the coil-2 whenever the electric current through the coil 1 is changing (starting or stopping). As the current in the first coil changes, the magnetic field associated with it also changes. Thus the magnetic field lines around the secondary coil also change. Hence the change in magnetic field lines associated with the secondary coil is the cause of induced electric current in it.

This process, by which a changing magnetic field in a conductor induces a current in another conductor, is called electromagnetic induction.

n.Write down the type of transformer in which turning of wire in the secondary coil is less than that of the primary coil.

Ans: Step down Transformer is the transformer in which turning of wire in the secondary coil is less then that of primary coil.

o. Write a short note on:

i. A.C

Alternating current (A.C.) changes its direction at regular intervals. It is usually defined as the current used in power supplies. It flows in one direction during the first half and in the opposite direction in the next half. The figure (a) in the previous page shows an a.c. circuit. The frequency of electricity supply in Nepal is 50Hz. It means the polarity of the a.c. changes 50 times in one second. The source of the a.c. is an a.c. generator.

ii. Electric bell

An electric bell is a source of sound that converts electrical energy into kinetic energy and then into sound energy.

An electric bell consists of a U-shaped soft iron core around which an insulated wire is wound to make it an electromagnet. A soft iron armature is adjusted in front of the electromagnet. Its one end is fixed while the other end is connected with a hammer which is free to move. Nearby the hammer, a gong is adjusted in such a way that the hammer can beat the gong. The armature is connected with a screw at point x.

iii. Adaptor

An adapter is used to run radio and other electrical appliances which need less voltage to work. It changes the voltage of a.c. supply and it also can change a.c. voltage into d.c. voltage. In it, a knob is used to adjust the required voltage for the electric appliance to run.

iv. Solar battery

Solar battery is an electrical device that changes light energy into electrical energy. It is also called a solar panel. A solar panel is a group of solar cells. It may be mobile or fixed at a place.

The battery or solar panel stores the electrical energy in a storing cell (lead acid battery). The stored electrical energy can be used for different purposes as a source of electricity.

v. Inverter 

An inverter is that electrical appliance which stores electric current when electricity is supplied. During load shedding, it is used as a source of electric current. It is very popular in our daily life. A device connected to an inverter changes the flowing alternating current into direct current an stores in the battery connected to it. When the supply is cut off, the stored direct current in the battery is changed into alternating current by the inverter. The electric current is used for many purposes in our daily life.

vi. Battery charger

Nowadays, battery chargersareused in many electrical appliances. The appliances are also supplied with batteries which stored direct current. They battery chargers change supplied alternating current into direct current to store in the batteries. The direct current stored in the batteries is used to run the electrical instrument. It is also called a recharger. There are many types of chargers. Mobile chargers are very common nowadays. In some battery chargers, there is cut off system as well. The system disconnects the electric circuit when the device is fully charged.

3. Differentiate Between:

a. Step up transformer and step down transformer

Ans: The differences between Step up transformer and step down transformer are as follows:

Step Up Transformer  Step Down Transformer 
 The current in the primary coil is more than that in the secondary coil The current in the primary coil is less than that in the secondary coil 
 The number of turns in the primary coil is less than that in the secondary coil The number of turns in the primary coil is more than that in the secondary coil 
 It is used to convert a low A.C. voltage into a high A.C. voltage  It is used to convert a high A.C. voltage into a low A.C. voltage

b. A.C and D.C

Ans: The differences between A.C and D.C are as follows:

HTML Table Generator

AC DC
Alternating current changes its
magnitude continuously and reverses its direction periodically
Polarity of direct current doesn't change with time 
AC voltage can be altered by transformer 
DC voltage cannot be altered by transformer 
 It is generated by an A.C generator It is generated by battery and dynamo 


c. Electric motor and generator

Ans: The differences between Electric motor and generator are as follows:

HTML Table Generator

Electric Motor  Generator 
 Electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy Electric generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
It uses electricity
It generates electricity
 It is based on the principle that current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field experiences a force It is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction


d. Filament lamp and fluorescent lamp.

Ans: The differences between Filament lamp and fluorescent lamp are as follows:

HTML Table Generator

Fluorescent Lamp  Filament Lamp 
 It converts 10% of electrical energy into light thus it provides yellow light It converts 30% of electrical energy into light thus it gives milky light 
 It is cheap to install It is expensive to install
 Tungsten filament emits light Fluorescent powder emits light 


e. Tungsten and Nichrome

Ans: The differences between Tungsten and Nichrome are as follows:

HTML Table Generator

Tungsten  Nichrome 
 Tungsten is made of lungsten wire  Nichrome is made of nickel chromium
 Tungsten is used to make filament of bulbs Nichrome is used in the elements of electric devices 
 Tungsten have high melting point then Nichrome  Nichrome have low melting point than Tungsten 

4. Give reason.

a. A switch and a fuse should be connected with live wire in an electrical circuit.

Ans: A switch and a fuse should be connected with live wire in an electrical circuit so that the electrical appliances will not be live when switched off. 

b. We should follow correct colour code for wiring. 

Ans: We should follow correct colour code for wiring because to identify the wires phase neutral and earth easily while doing connections.

c. Metallic bodies of electric appliances are connected to the earth wire.

Ans: Metallic bodies of electric appliances are connected to the earth wire because inorder to transfer any current leakage directly to the ground.

d. A filament lamp is filled with inert gases.

Ans: A filament lamp is filled with inert gases because to reduce evaporation of the filament and prevent its oxidation.

e. A thin coil of tungsten metal is used as filament in light bulbs.

Ans: A thin coil of tungsten metal is used as filament in light bulbs because it has high resistance and can easily convert electrical energy into light energy.

f. Filament is bright but not other wires of an electric bulb when electric current passes through it.

Ans: Filament is bright but not other wires of an electric bulb when electric current passes through it because the filament has high resistance than the wire.

g. An electric bulb is not filled with air.

Ans: An electric bulb is not filled with air because if air is filled in an electric bulb , then the extremely hot tungsten filament would burn up quickly in the oxygen of air.

h. Nichrome wire is used in a heater.

Ans: Nichrome wire is used in a heater because nichrome doesn't oxidise and burn easily in high temperature as it has high melting and boiling point.

If Class 10 Electricity & Magnetism Notes were helpful to you then feel free to share this notes with your friends & classmates. 

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10 Comments
  • Bhawana Prajapati
    Bhawana Prajapati 1 December 2022 at 06:27

    add numerical problems

    • Anonymous
      Anonymous 6 December 2022 at 06:01

      true

    • Anonymous
      Anonymous 11 January 2023 at 09:11

      they are easy.

  • Anonymous
    Anonymous 11 January 2023 at 09:10

    good notes thank you.

    • Sanjeev
      Sanjeev 12 January 2023 at 04:58

      You're welcome😊

    • Anonymous
      Anonymous 1 October 2023 at 09:00

      Haha

  • Anonymous
    Anonymous 24 November 2023 at 01:52

    Once see question No. 3d, there is mistake.

    • Sanjeev
      Sanjeev 24 November 2023 at 03:52

      Can you please make it specific by telling what is the main mistake. It will he a great help.

    • Anonymous
      Anonymous 14 January 2024 at 07:27

      Difference between wala

  • Anonymous
    Anonymous 14 January 2024 at 07:25

    New syllabus (2080) are not covered, Most of them are of previous syllabus(2079)

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