Materials Used in Daily Life Class 10 Science Complete Notes. This note include all important questions materials used in daily life chapter of science book such as question answer, numericals, give reason, diagrammatic questions and define the following. This note is published for helping students to solve their problems.
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- Man-made materials used in our daily life
- Natural materials used in our daily life
- What is the importance of these materials in our daily life
- Khullakitab class 10
- Metals used in daily life
- Science practice Book Class 10
- Class 10 science chromosome
- Oasis Science Book Class 10 solutions
- Reliant science book class 10 solutions
- Science practice Book Class 10
- Class 10 science chromosomes exercise
- The universe class 10
- Kullabs class 10
- Modern Graded Science Class 10 PDF download
Materials Used in Daily Life
Section - A
1. Write one special property of water glass.
- It dissolves in water
2. What is glazing?
Ans: In order to make ceramic materials attractive, shiny, non-porous and smooth, glaze, colour and polish are applied to them. This process is called glazing.
3. Write one special feature of sodium silicate or potassium silicate glass.
- This glass dissolves in water
4. What are the raw materials used to prepare water glass?
- Silica (SiO₂)
- Sodium carbonate (Na₂CO3) or potassium carbonate (K₂CO3)
5. What do you mean by RCC?
Ans: RCC stands for Reinforced cement concrete. It is the concrete having an iron framework inside it as a support. It is a very strong material for construction.
6. Name the chemical which increases the setting time of cement.
Ans: Gypsum (CaSO4. 2H2O) increases the setting time of cement.
7. Define the following terms:
(a) Cement clinker (b) Mortar
Ans: (a) Cement clinker: Cement clinker is a mixture of pea-sized balls which consists of calcium silicate and calcium aluminate.
(b) Mortar: Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand and water which is used as plastering material and to join bricks, stones, etc.
8. What is a polymer?
Ans: A polymer is a very big molecule formed by the combination of a large number of small molecules called monomers.
9. What is a monomer? Give examples.
Ans: Monomer is a small organic molecule which can combine together in large number to form a big molecule called polymer. Examples: Ethene, Venyl chloride, Styrene, etc.
10. What is ceramics? Describe in brief.
Ans: Ceramics (Greek-keramos-potter's clay) is a special type of clay which contains compounds of carbon, nitrogen, silica and oxygen.
11. What is kaolin ? Why is it used?
Ans: Pure white soil is called kaolin. It is used for making cup, plates etc.
12. What are plastics ?
Ans: Plastics are the artificial materials made by the polymerization of carbon containing monomers.
13. What is polyvinyl chloride?
Ans: Polyvinyl chloride is a strong thermoplastic which is prepared by polymerization of vinyl chloride.
14. What is incineration?
Ans: Incineration is the process of burning of solid wastes at about 1000°C.
15. Write the two symptoms of deficiency of nitrogenous fertilizers in plant.
- Leaves become yellow
- Fruits and seeds become small
16. What are phosphorus fertilizers ?
Ans: Phosphorus fertilizers are the fertilizers containing phosphorus.
17. What are potassium fertilizers? Why are they essential for plants?
- making roots and shoots strong and healthy
- growth of flowers
18. What is detergent? Give one example.
Ans: Synthetic petrochemical obtained from hydrocarbon which is more soluble than soap is called detergent. e.g. sodium lauryl sulphate.
19. What are organic insecticides ?
Ans: Organic insecticides are synthetic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen
20. What are organic fertilizers ? Give one example.
Ans: The fertilizers made from decay of animals and plants or the waste products of animals are called organic fertilizers. Example: Compost manure
21. What is compost manure ? How is it prepared ?
Ans: Compost manure is an organic fertilizer which is made from the decaying
parts of plants and animals or the waste products of plants and animals.
22. What are nitrogenous fertilizers ?
Ans: The fertilizers containing nitrogen are called nitrogenous fertilizers.
23. What is water glass ?
Ans: Water glass is a special kind of glass which is produced by heating silica with sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate at about 800°C and cooling the product.
24. What is quartz glass (or silica glass) ?
Ans: Quartz glass or silica glass is a crystalline glass prepared by heating silica at about 1600°C and then cooling the product.
25. What is cement ?
Ans: Cement is a gray powder made by burning clay and limestone that sets hard when it is mixed with water.
26. What is hard glass ?
Ans: The glass prepared by heating silica with potassium carbonate and calcium carbonate is called hard glass.
27. Name two raw materials that are used for the manufacture of cement.
28. What is lead crystal glass ?
Ans: The glass prepared by heating the mixture of silica, potassium carbonate and lead oxide is called lead crystal glass. It is also called flute glass.
29. Write any two effects seen from Klinefelter's disorder.
- Infertility and growth of breasts in males
- Tall stature and small genitals
30. a. Which chemical is used to prepare red glass ?
Ans: Copper Oxide is used to prepare red glass.
b. Name a chemical used to make blue glass.
Ans: Cobalt oxide is used to make blue glass.
31. Which compound is added to make the black glass ?
Ans: Nickel oxide is added to make the black glass.
32. What is concrete ?
Ans: Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, gravel and water which is used for flooring and roofing.
33. What is soft glass ?
Ans: The glass which is prepared by heating silica with sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate is called soft glass or soda-lime glass.
34. List out two raw materials used for making glass.
- Sodium Carbonate
35. What do you mean by 'Ordinary glass' ?
Ans: Glass is a transparent (usually) substance prepared by heating the mixture of silica, sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate.
36. Which glass is fireproof ?
Ans: Water glass is fire proof.
37. What is 'Borosilicate glass' or pyrex glass?
Ans: The glass prepared by heating a mixture of sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate and boric oxide with silica is called Borosilicate glass or Pyrex glass.
38. Write the name of two raw materials used for the preparation of pyrex glass.
- Sodium carbonate
- Boric oxide
39. Write down any two features of pyrex glass (or Borosilicate glass).
- It has a very low coefficient of expansion
- It is more resistant to heat and chemicals
40. Which chemical is heated with the mixture to increase the refractive index of ordinary glass.
Ans: Lead monoxide (PbO) is heated with the mixture to increase the refractive index of ordinary glass.
41. Which type of fibre are orlan and silk ?
Ans: Orlan is a synthetic artificial fibre whereas silk is a natural fibre.
42. What is chemical pollution ?
Ans: The environmental pollution caused by various chemicals like insecticides, chemical fertilizers, synthetic cleansers and other industrial chemicals is called chemical pollution.
43. What are biodegradable solid wastes? Write with examples.
Ans: The solid wastes that decay and decompose after some time are called biodegradable solid wastes. Examples: Dead animals and plants, waste paper, clothes, thrown foodstuffs, etc.
44. What are non-biodegradable solid wastes ? Write with examples.
Ans: The solid wastes that do not decay and decompose for a long time are called non-biodegradable solid wastes. Examples: plastics, bottles, glass pieces, metals etc.
45. What is solid waste management ?
Ans: The collection, tansportation, processing and reuse of waste materials is called solid waste management.
46. What are the raw materials used to make Bakelite ?
Ans: The raw materials which are used to make Bakelite are carbolic acid and formaldehyde.
47. What is 'soap' ? Give one example.
Ans: A soap is defined as a sodium salt of higher fatty acid which has cleansing properties in water, e.g. Sodium stearate
48. What is saponification?
Ans: The process of making soap by the hydrolysis of fats and oil with alkalis is called saponification.
49. Name the raw materials used for making soap.
- Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
- Animal fat or vegetable oil
50. Write down the full form of DDT.
Ans: The full form of DDT is Dichlorodiphenyl Trichloroethane.
51. Write the name of a carbamate insecticide.
Ans: Begon is a carbamate insecticide which contains amino (NH2) group.
52. What are fertilizers? Name two types of fertilizers.
- Organic fertilizers
- Chemical/Inorganic fertilizers
53. Why is nitrogen essential for plants ?
- For rapid growth
- To increase protein content
54. Write the name of nitrogenous fertilizer.
Ans: Ammonium nitrate is a nitrogenous fertilizer.
55. Write the name of two chemical fertilizers which provide potassium to the plant.
- Potassium Nitrate
- Potassium Sulphate
Group - B
56. Write two reasons that compost fertilizer is better than chemical fertilizer.
- Compost fertilizer provides all the necessary elements to the plants and plant products produced by using organic fertilizers are tasty, nutritious and healthy, but plant products produced by using chemical fertilizers affect our health.
- Compost fertilizer does not cause chemical pollution but chemical fertilizers cause chemical pollution.
|Soap is a sodium or potassium salt of fatty acid
|Detergent is a synthetic petrochemical obtained from hydrocarbon
|Soap is not suitable for washing purpose when the water is hard
|Synthetic detergent can be used for washing ever when the water is hard
58. "Synthetic detergents are better than soaps". Justify this statement with any two reasons.
- Synthetic detergents can be used even with hard water whereas soaps are not suitable for washing clothes with hard water
- Synthetic detergents have a stronger cleansing action than that of soaps
59. Why are plastic materials used more than other materials ?
- It is lighter and can be changed into any desirable shape.
- It is cheap and durable.
- It does not rot and corrode
- It is bad conductor of heat and electricity
60. Write any two differences between thermosetting plastic (Bakelite) and thermoplastic (PVC) or polythene.
|Thermosetting plastic (Bakelite)
|Thermoplastic (PVC) or Polythene
|Thermosetting plastic cannot be changed into various shapes by heating
|Thermoplastic can be changed into various shapes by heating
| It becomes much harder but does not melt when heated
|It melts when heated and becomes solid if cooled
61. What is the cause of setting of cement on mixing with water ?
Ans: The setting of cement on mixing with water is due to hydration of calcium silicates and calcium aluminates, etc. present in it.
62. Why is potash glass called hard glass ?
Ans: Potash glass is called hard glass because;
- It has a higher melting point and can withstand higher temperature
- It is more resistant to the action of acids
63. Why is gypsum added to cement ? Give reason.
- It is easier to work with slow setting cement
- Such cement leads to its greater hardening
64. Why are ceramic materials brought into use? Give any four reasons.
- Ceramics can withstand high temperature
- It is poor conductor of heat and electricity
- It is resistant to the action of chemicals
- It is hard and brittle
65. Differentiate between soft glass and hard glass.
Ans: The differences between soft glass and hard glass are as follows:
|Soft glass is produced by heating sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate with silica
|Hard glass is obtained by heating potassium carbonate and calcium carbonate with silica
|It is used for making window panes, mirror, etc
|It is used for making heat-resistant equipments
66. Why is lead crystal glass used for making expensive glassware ?
Ans: The lead crystal glass shows an extraordinary sparkle as it has a high refractive index. So it is used for making expensive glassware (like decoration pieces).
67. Electric switch and handle of pressure cooker are made up of bakelite, why?
Ans: Bakelite is bad conductor of electricity. So, it is used for making electric switch. Similarly, bakelite does not melt on heating and is a bad conductor of heat. So it is used for covering the handle of a pressure cooker.
68. Why is plastic used for making surgical equipment ?
Ans: Plastic does not harm the internal body parts. So it is used for making surgical equipment.
69. What is meant by NPK fertilizer? Why is it called a complete fertilizer?
Ans: The chemical fertilizer containing all plant nutrients, i.e. nitrogen. phosphorus and potassium is called NPK fertilizer. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the three basic primary nutrients for plants. So NPK fertilizer is also called a complete fertilizer.
70. Water used to wash clothes with detergent is not useful for the plants, why?
Ans: The water used to wash clothes with detergents contain harmful chemicals for plants. Therefore, such water is not useful for plants.
71. Defend with two points that 'detergent is more useful than soap'.
Ans: Two points to defend the statement 'detergent is more useful than soap' are mentioned below:
a. Detergents can be used even with hard water whereas soaps are not suitable for washing clothes with hard water.
b. Detergents have a stronger cleansing action than that of soaps.
72. Why is PVC called a thermoplastic ? How does it differ from bakelite ?
Ans: PVC melts on heating. So, it is called a thermoplastic. PVC can be changed into various shapes by heating but bakelite cannot be changed into various shapes by heating because bakelite does not melt on heating.
73. Why is Bakelite called thermosetting plastic ?
Ans: Bakelite does not melt on heating and cannot be remoulded. So, it is called thermosetting plastic.
74. Give the reason for using bakelite or thermosetting plastic to cover the handle of pressure cooker.
Ans: Bakelite or thermosetting plastic is heat resistant and non-conducting material. It does not change its shape on heating. It hardens more on heating instead of melting. So thermosetting plastic is used to cover the handle of pressure cooker.
75. Mention any two reasons of chemical pollution.
Ans: Any two reasons of chemical pollution are as follows:
(i) The use of insecticides and fertilizers
(ii) Smoke from vehicles and factories
76. Environmentalists request to avoid the use of plastic. Why?
Ans: Plastic is a non-biodegradable substance which remains on the earth's surface for a long time without decomposing. When plastic is thrown everywhere, it causes environmental pollution. When plastics are burnt, they emit poisonous gases which affect the health of living organisms. So environmentalists request to avoid the use of plastic.
77. Mention the major causes of chemical pollution.
Ans: The major causes of chemical pollution are as follows :-
(i) The use of insecticides and fertilizers
(ii) Household wastes and plastics
(iii) Smoke from vehicles and factories
(iv) Colouring materials in foodstuff
78. Differentiate between organic fertilizers and inorganic/chemical fertilizers.
Ans: The differences between organic and Inorganic fertilizers are as follows:
|Organic fertilizers are made by decaying plants and waste products of animals
|Chemical fertilizers are made by using different chemicals
|They do not cause chemical pollution
|They cause chemical pollution
79. Organic fertilizer is better than chemical fertilizer. Give any two reasons.
Ans: Organic fertilizer is better than chemical fertilizers because of the following reasons :-
a. Organic fertilizers provide all the necessary elements to the plants and plant products produced by using organic fertilizers are tasty, nutritious and healthy, but plant products produced by using chemical fertilizers affect our health
b. Organic fertilizers do not cause chemical pollution but chemical fertilizers cause chemical pollution.
Group - C
80. What are the steps of solid waste management ?
- Collection and transportation
- Segragation and waste management
- Processing and disposal
- Landfill dumping
81. How is compost fertilizer made ? Explain.
Ans: Method of making compost fertilizer
First of all, biodegradable wastes like remaining parts of fruits and vegetables, leaves of plants, animal wastes are collected. A pit of 5 m length, 1.5m breadth and 1. 5 m height is dug. Then those wastes are kept in the pit and covered with a layer of soil. Again, wastes are added and covered with soil. These wastes get decayed slowly and compost fertilizer becomes ready within 3-4 months.
82. Why is glass called fourth state of matter ? Write any two uses of water glass and lead crystal glass.
Ans: Though glass appears solid, its molecule flow downwards very slowly like in a liquid. Therefore, glass is called the fourth state of matter or supercooled liquid.
Two uses of water glass:
(i) For making fire-proof materials.
(ii) For making silica garden.
Two uses of lead crystal glass:
(i) For making lenses, prism, etc.
(ii) For making electric bulbs.
83. How is ordinary glass made? Write any one use of ordinary glass.
Ans: Ordinary glass is prepared by heating silica with sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate and cooling the product.
One use of ordinary glass:
(i) It is used for making window panes, bottles, light pipes, lenses and prisms.
84. Write down the main uses of pyrex or borosilicate glass.
Ans: The main uses of pyrex glass are:
(i) Pyrex glass or heat resistant glass is used for making laboratory apparatus like beakers, flasks, etc. which are to be heated at high temperature.
(ii) It is used for making ovenware (i.e. glass utensils used for cooking).
(iii) It is used for making ampoules (glass container used for storing liquid medicines for injections) and other pharmaceutical containers.
85. How can you prepare soap ?
Ans: I can prepare soap by heating animal fat or vegetable oil (oil of olive, coconut or cotton seeds) with sodium hydroxide and stirring the mixture.
86. What effects on plants will phosphorus and potassium ?
Ans: Deficiency of nitrogen in plants retards the growth, synthesis of chlorophyll. It also hinders the development of plant body and protein synthesis.
Deficiency of phosphorus in plants retards the development of root system. It hinders the protein synthesis, ripening of fruit and development of seeds. It also decreases the resistivity of plants against diseases.
Deficiency of potassium in plants results in late maturation of plants and flowers. It also decreases the disease resistance in plants. The roots and shoots become weak and unhealthy.
87. Write down the main uses of ceramics. Write any three applications of ceramics.
Ans: The main uses or applications of ceramics are:
- Ceramics is used for making crockery like cups, bowls, etc.
- It is used for making bathroom tiles, sinks, roof tiles, bricks, etc.
- It is used for making insulators in electrical appliances.
88. How ceramics prepared ?
Ans: In order to make ceramics, the soil is mixed with water and moulded into different shapes. Then, it is dried in the sun and heated in a furnace. At high temperature (about 800°C) the soil hardens due to chemical reaction and becomes porous. Glaze is added to make it shiny. In order to make it attractive, shiny, non porous and smooth; glaze, colour and polish can be added to it.
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